Groups that support nuclear energy and an “All of the Above” approach on climate
If you care about climate, the only data that really matters and which speaks directly to how well we’ve done to date are net global carbon dioxide emissions. During the Obama Administration, we began to level the curve. Unfortunately, the Trump Administration has made it a priority to reverse nearly all environmental protections, including those limiting carbon emissions, resulting in large increases in emissions over the last three and a half years. Even with record amounts spent on new solar and wind generation in the U.S. and around the world, global emissions continue to grow rapidly.
This is evidence that what we’ve been doing is not been working. In order to limit global temperature growth to 2° C, we need to reduce emission by 50% by 2030 and by the remaining 50% by 2050, according to the IPCC. This dismal performance explains why a growing group of experts acknowledge the need for nuclear power and support a nuclear-inclusive “all of the above” approach for addressing future emissions.
UPDATE: Joe Biden’s Climate Plan includes support for expanding nuclear power through government support of advanced nuclear innovation.
Pronuclear and “Nuclear-Inclusive” Non-Profit Organizations
The following is a chronological list of the most prominent non-profit pronuclear environmental advocacy groups.
American Council on Science and Health The ACSH is a pro-science and non-profit news organization. They were created to establish a scientific counterpart to the over-dramatized and falsified daily news. The ACSH will always advocate for science and is passionately fighting the politicians and voices who undermine evidence and the scientific method.
Anthropocene Institute The Anthropocene Institute’s mission is to drive thought leadership and investment. We seek to accelerate the technological and community innovations necessary to address the needs of our planet. We plan for humanity’s success in the Anthropocene. We believe in prosperity rather than austerity. We enable leadership to solve climate and energy with an engineering safety margin with fixed goals, fixed timelines, and fixed budgets.
The Breakthrough Institute The Breakthrough Institute is a global research center that identifies and promotes technological solutions to environmental and human development challenges. We believe that human prosperity and an ecologically vibrant planet are possible at the same time. We are progressives who believe in the potential of human development, technology, and evolution to improve human lives and create a beautiful world. We are researchers, analysts, and writers who reject outmoded orthodoxies on the Left and Right, and are dedicated to new ways of thinking about energy and the environment. We are the authors of reassessments of progressive assumptions, from “The Death of Environmentalism,” which argued for transcending a nature-based politics to Where Good Technologies Come From, which demonstrates the critical role government has played in the development of technologies from the railroad to the iPhone. We are dedicated to bringing new ideas to the table that change the debates over energy, the environment, and the economy so they better reflect the global challenges of the 21st century.
Bright New World We are Bright New World and we are here to win the future back. We are the environmentalists for the 21st century. What does that mean? It means we don’t pick and choose our science and we don’t turn away from reality. Climate change, growing populations, shrinking wild spaces…check, check, check. We stare it in the face and refuse to blink. We mobilise to support practical, achievable solutions that will right this beautiful spaceship of ours. Actions and solutions that start now and will be felt for generations. We know what we need to do and we will fight to get it done. In a world that will soon hold 10 billion humans, each as worthy as the last, the key to our great future is energy. Energy… plentiful, clean and affordable. When we pair it with human ingenuity, it is the great universal substitute that takes the pressure off our natural world. We can get that energy from fission. Nuclear power. Today’s and tomorrow’s technology. With that plentiful clean energy we can conserve, protect and restore our nature while bringing lives of dignity and opportunity to people around the world. We are an all-hands- on-deck kind of place when it comes to renewables and nuclear working together because these challenges are big, big, big. That’s why we need the big pay offs, the big substitutes, the big answers… so we’re a fission-friendly operation, first and foremost.
Clean Air Task Force The Clean Air Task Force works to help safeguard against the worst impacts of climate change by catalyzing the rapid global development and deployment of low carbon energy and other climate-protecting technologies through research and analysis, public advocacy leadership, and partnership with the private sector.
Clean Energy Leadership Institute (cleanenergyleaders.org) The Clean Energy Leadership Institute (CELI) is a professional development organization based in Washington, DC and San Francisco, CA. CELI’s mission is to empower and connect diverse young professionals seeking leadership roles in the clean energy field. CELI’s Fellowship Program provides early-career professionals with interdisciplinary educational training, leadership development, and a supportive professional community.
Clean Energy Ministerial. The Clean Energy Ministerial tackles some of the greatest challenges of our century and works to accelerate the transition to a clean energy future. Created in 2010, the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) is a global forum where major economies and forward leaning countries work together to share best practices and promote policies and programs that encourage and facilitate the transition to a global clean energy economy. CEM members account for approximately 75% of global greenhouse gas emissions and 90% of global clean energy investments. The annual CEM Ministerial meeting is the only high-level political engagement where ministers gather to establish clean energy priorities, put forward innovative policies and adopt concrete measures to accelerate the deployment of clean solutions and where the work is carried through year-round CEM initiatives and campaigns.n. The CEM’s initiatives and campaigns enable low-cost, high-impact technical work that amplifies each government’s clean energy deployment efforts. They seek to catalyze public and private actions towards ambitious but realistic targets. To achieve its goals, the CEM works with partners from the private sector, international organizations and civil society to bring their respective abilities, strengths, and resources to the table.
ClearPath’s mission is to develop and advance conservative policies that accelerate clean energy innovation. To advance that mission, they develop cutting-edge policy and collaborate with academics and industry. An entrepreneurial, young, strategic nonprofit, ClearPath (501(c)(3)) partners with in-house and external experts on nuclear, carbon capture, hydropower, natural gas, geothermal, energy storage and energy innovation to advance their mission.
Climate Coalition The (U.S.) Climate Coalition is striving to build unity within the climate movement to avoid self-defeating infighting about the “means” by which we address climate, so that we can focus on achieving the “ends,” which is a monumental amount of carbon emission reduction. Saving our climate for future generations is our most urgent mission and we need to working together to effect the transition our complex and dynamic society as quickly as possible. Those of us committed to climate action must band together to have the political power to win against those who refuse to change business as usual—mostly those with fossil fuel interests (including too many politicians). Members of our coalition are working to build support for the “all of the above” approach to addressing climate and we support all means of reducing emissions, including wind, solar, nuclear, advanced nuclear, hydro, geothermal, wave, storage, energy efficiency and CCUS. If you are not willing to work together to solve this crisis, you are part of the problem.
Doctors for Nuclear Energy is a volunteer organization with no connections to industry. We believe that the evidence points to Nuclear Energy as the most effective tool to transition off fossil fuels and eliminate air pollution. We advocate for nuclear energy as the evidence based tool we need right now to clean up our air and reduce the impacts of climate change. Every year 7 million people die prematurely from air pollution. Particulate matter from coal fired power plants contribute to millions of cases of pneumonia, asthma, heart disease, stroke and premature birth. Climate change poses enormous challenges to health. Forest fires, droughts, food shortages and the spread of tropical diseases threaten the peace and stability or our societies. It is a little known fact that Nuclear Energy has already successfully replaced the burning of fossil fuels in France, Sweden and Ontario and decarbonized their electricity.
Energy for Humanity is a UK-and Switzerland-based non-profit organisation with a global outlook focused on solving climate change and enabling universal access to modern energy services. Energy for Humanity strongly advocates for evidence-based, whole-system, and technology-inclusive solutions in pursuit of the best (fastest, most cost-effective, most feasible) outcomes for people and nature. Our goal is to address these themes and to inspire meaningful action. Future leaders will need all the tools at their disposal to solve global challenges including climate change and air pollution, whilst providing low cost, clean power to billions of people and improving life chances for women and children throughout the world.
Environmental Progress (EP) was founded to achieve two goals: lift all humans out of poverty, and save the natural environment. These goals can be achieved by mid-century — but only if we remove the obstacles to cheap, reliable and clean energy. Environmental Progress’s biggest victories were saving America’s largest source of clean energy — nuclear power — in Illinois, New York, Connecticut, France, South Korea, and New Jersey. We did so by building a humanistic environmental movement demanding energy justice for all.
Environmentalists for Nuclear Energy is an independent non-profit and international network of over 10,000 environmentalists who recognize the usefulness and importance of supporting nuclear energy to protect the environment and to help make the world better for humanity. The group, founded in France, has developed branches and twenty other countries, including the UK, USA, Japan, South Africa, Canada, Australia, Poland, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain, China, Portugal, Russia, Czech, Albania, Sweden and Romania. EFN welcomes professionals and teachers from around the world to contribute to global education about nuclear energy, nuclear medicine, nuclear science and technologies and how they fit in with other energy sources and by-products. The group maintains websites in a number of languages with articles on subjects relating to nuclear energy.
Generation Atomic is a non-profit founded by members of the younger generation who believe that atomic energy has the potential to save the environment, foster innovation, create jobs, and strengthen our society. Unfortunately, at the same time, the largest source of clean energy is at risk at a time when we need it most. Generation Atomic seeks to engage the public using events, social media, and advocacy technology to communicate the benefits of nuclear power. They also work to train a new wave of advocates from a vast array of backgrounds and empower individuals and groups to represent nuclear at the local level by maintaining a diverse network of advocates in our “nuclear family.”
Global Nexus Initiative is a partnership between two non-traditional stakeholder, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and the Partnership for Global Security (PGS), which have jointly created the Global Nexus Initiative (GNI). The GNI will explore the linkages among climate change, nuclear power, and global security issues with the goal of crafting realistic and actionable policy solutions that will ensure the safe and secure use of existing and new nuclear energy sources, support economic vitality, and protect people and the environment.
The International Atomic Energy Agency The IAEA is the world’s central intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the nuclear field. It works for the safe, secure and peaceful uses of nuclear science and technology, contributing to international peace and security and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals.
The Hoover Institution The Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California. It began as a library founded in 1919 by Republican and Stanford alumnus Herbert Hoover, before he became President of the United States.
The Long Now The Long Now Foundation was established in 01996* to develop the Clock and Library projects, as well as to become the seed of a very long-term cultural institution. The Long Now Foundation hopes to provide a counterpoint to today’s accelerating culture and help make long-term thinking more common. We hope to foster responsibility in the framework of the next 10,000 years.
Mothers for Nuclear We are friends, mothers, environmentalists, scientists, and engineers. We used to be skeptical of nuclear. Now we consider it essential to protecting our children from pollution, our landscapes from sprawl, and future generations from global warming. We’ve learned a lot from our experience working at Diablo Canyon, California’s last nuclear power plant. We started Mothers for Nuclear as a way to share our stories and help address concerns. We also hope to begin a dialogue with those who are skeptical of nuclear.
The Nature Conservancy. Released a report in October 2018 called “The Science of Sustainability.” In this report, they debunk the myth that environmental interests and economic interests are in conflict. Instead they acknowledge that achieving a sustainable future is dependent on our ability to secure both thriving human communities and abundant and healthy natural ecosystems. So, the Nature Conservancy partnered with twelve other organizations to find pathways to serve both the needs of people and nature and addressed all of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals in turn. They evaluated both the path we are on and the path we need to take to become sustainable. They found that, in order to both meet increased energy demand and keep the climate within safe boundaries, we’ll need to alter the way we produce energy, curtailing emissions of carbon and other harmful chemicals. They found that reducing harmful carbon-based energy could be offset by increasing the share of energy from renewable sources and nuclear energy combined to a total of 85% of the world’s energy demand, per this graphic.
Navigating Nuclear: Energizing Our World is an exciting new program from the American Nuclear Society and Discovery Education, designed to provide educators with standards-aligned activities, lessons, career explorations, and project ideas to clarify common misconceptions surrounding nuclear science and explore its role in future technological applications. Navigating Nuclear aims to increase awareness of the safe, effective, and efficient applications and contributions of nuclear science and technology by providing standards-aligned classroom resources for educators and students that explore the current, real-world applications of nuclear processes and their role in future advancements. Discovery Education partners with districts, states, and like-minded organizations to captivate students, empower teachers, and transform classrooms with customized solutions that increase academic achievement. Serving 4.5 million educators and over 50 million students, Discovery Education’s services are in approximately half of U.S. classrooms, 50 percent of all primary schools in the UK, and more than 50 countries.
New Nuclear Watch Institute (NNWI) is an industry supported think-tank, focused on the international development of nuclear energy as a means for governments to safeguard their long term sustainable energy needs. They believe that nuclear is vital to achieving binding Paris Climate Agreement objectives and tackling the challenge of climate change. Since inception, NNWI has been recogniszed in the press as a high profile nuclear industry body working across the UK and European nuclear sector.
NICE Future. The Nuclear Innovation: Clean Energy Future (NICE Future), an international initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial—which was founded by the United States, Canada and Japan and which now includes Argentina, Poland, Romania, Russia, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom—engages in global conversation on the roles nuclear energy can play in clean energy systems of the future. Rather than focus on specific technologies or issues, the group addresses nuclear energy holistically within the context of broader clean energy systems with the goal of moving nuclear energy from traditional, nuclear-only fora to broader, cross-sectoral discussions about clean energy at the ministerial and working levels in more countries. The operating agent of the NICE Future initiative is the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and its institutional affiliate, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), which lead the NICE Future initiative and serve as the liaison to the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) Secretariat. NREL implements NICE Future initiative activities based on guidance from CEM, the United Nations, and our partners and stakeholders.
The Nuclear Alternative Project. Puerto Rico has been an energy deficient country since Hurricane Maria struck two years ago. As technology and the climate changes, nuclear energy seems to have risen as a primary source to base their energy supply on. In response, the Department of Energy has granted The Nuclear Alternative projected the responsibility of prospecting Puerto Rico to possibly build advanced nuclear reactors. A member of the project team, Donald Hoffman said, “It’s our intent to showcase our advanced nuclear as an alternative energy option for Puerto Rico.” Unlike wind and solar, nuclear power plants hold up well in hurricanes. Puerto Rico’s clean energy future is soon to be heard as their report is due on December 18th.
Nuclear Friends Foundation. Nuclear Friends Foundation (NFF) is an initiative of the Indian government which aims to separate fact from fiction about nuclear energy. The group addresses common misunderstandings and presents nuclear energy as an “eco-friendly” mode of power generation. Nuclear Friends Foundation, presumably a non-profit organized under Indian law, writes in English with the objective of identifying untrue antinuclear propaganda and explaining the truth and “eye-opening” facts about nuclear and its myriad applications “helpful to mankind.” The writing is less than perfect but the site is very comprehensive and discusses India’s nuclear aspirations to a certain extent.
Nuclear Innovation Alliance. The world needs affordable, dispatchable, secure, low carbon energy that can scale up rapidly; nuclear power can uniquely meet that need. Nuclear energy development stalled late in the 20th Century due to political controversy, market factors, and project management failures, complicated by the scale and complexity of early nuclear technologies. Now, advanced reactor concepts promise to lower risk and cost and reduce deployment barriers. The challenge is to maintain and accelerate America’s nuclear innovation and to maintain the strategic and economic advantages of continued US leadership in this area. The Nuclear Innovation Alliance has four strategic priorities that it is pursuing to maintain and enhance American nuclear innovation: 1 Provide a staged, and ultimately more technology-neutral licensing process based upon risk-informed principles. 2. Provide a test bed where nuclear innovators in the private sector can demonstrate advanced technologies. 3. Cooperation to provide for international commercial testing, demonstration, and deployment of advanced technologies. 4. Financial support for early stage technology development and early commercial deployment.
Nuclear New York. Nuclear New York is a project of Community Studies of New York, Inc, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, serving as an independent, non-partisan, advocacy organization devoted to supporting nuclear energy in New York State. Shutting down the single largest source of zero-carbon energy in the downstate area jeopardizes the economy, safety, and well-being of New Yorkers, while contributing to catastrophic climate change. Unfortunately, Cuomo has agreed to force the premature closure of Reactor 2 on April 30, so NYC will lose a Gigawatt of clean, reliable energy and replace that with new fossil fuel energy, adding both pollution and carbon emissions to the woes of the city beset with the COVID-19 pandemic. Please sign the Change.org petition if you think this is wrong.
The Progressive Policy Institute is a catalyst for policy innovation and political reform based in Washington, D.C. Its mission is to create radically pragmatic ideas for moving America beyond ideological and partisan deadlock. Founded in 1989, PPI started as the intellectual home of the New Democrats and earned a reputation as President Bill Clinton’s “idea mill.” Many of its mold-breaking ideas have been translated into public policy and law and have influenced international efforts to modernize progressive politics. Today, PPI is developing fresh proposals for stimulating U.S. economic innovation and growth; equipping all Americans with the skills and assets that social mobility in the knowledge economy requires; modernizing an overly bureaucratic and centralized public sector; and, defending liberal democracy in a dangerous world. PPI authored “Next-Gen Reactors: How Nuclear Innovation Can Support Growth and a Healthy Climate” in 2016.
Rethinking Nuclear is a group that seeks to help the public develop a clearer understanding of why nuclear is critical for addressing climate. Launched by Margi Kindig, a retired attorney and life long environmentalist who changed her mind about nuclear power when she was a citizen representative on Wisconsin Governor Doyle’s Task Force on Global Warming, and Richard Steeves, a former Professor of Radiation Oncology at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine, whose interest is reducing carbon dioxide emissions and the severity of future climate change, they collaborated with others to help provide the tools for others to gain knowledge quickly. Convinced that nuclear power is absolutely essential to address climate change, and that objections from environmental organizations and many progressives were based on fear and misunderstanding, they sought a way to continue to expand access to the types of educational materials they both had been developing through independent activities.
Third Way Third Way is a national think tank that champions modern center-left ideas. Our work is grounded in the mainstream American values of opportunity, freedom, and security. But we identify as center-left, because we see that space in U.S. politics as offering the only real path for advancing those ideals in the century ahead. Our agenda is ambitious, aspirational, and actionable. It is built on the bedrock belief that for political movements to succeed in our political system, they must relentlessly re-imagine their policies, strategies, and coalitions. We are fighting for opportunity, so everyone has the chance to earn a good life; progress on social issues, so all have the freedom to live the lives they choose; and security, so we are protected from 21st century global threats.
Union of Concerned Scientists The Union of Concerned Scientists has finally taken a sharp pencil to the issue of climate change and realized that, if the the U.S. doesn’t protect its nuclear power, we will likely not meet our emissions reduction goals and climate change will spiral out of control. They released a report called “The Nuclear Power Dilemma” with their findings about the state of nuclear power in the US and their recommendations on why and how best to keep these sources of clean energy operational. As UCS President, Ken Kimmel, wrote in a separate blog post about the report, “These sobering realities dictate that we keep an open mind about all of the tools in the emissions reduction toolbox—even ones that are not our personal favorites. And that includes existing nuclear power plants in the United States, which currently supply about 20 percent of our total electricity needs and more than half of our low-carbon electricity supply.”
US Nuclear Energy Foundation The US Nuclear Energy Foundation works to educate the nation about nuclear technology our need for the Yucca Mountain Repository, Renewable Energy, Advanced Reactors and Above Ground Storage. Their overall mission is to renew the image of the nuclear industry and rebrand it as clean, responsible and safe energy. The US NEF holds meetings regularly, provides presentations at a wide range of conferences, organizes expert tour groups to the Idaho National Laboratory, and maintains a website with a considerable amount of nuclear information for public review.
Virginia Program Office For Recycling & Disposition Of Used/Spent Nuclear Fuel Current laws in the United States direct nuclear waste to be stored in the Yucca Mountains in Nevada 900 feet below ground. With nuclear power being a crucial tool for combatting climate change for decades to come, the Virginia Program Office For Recycling & Disposition Of Used/Spent Nuclear Fuel envisions a better long-term solution for disposing of waste. The program office would like the United States to model France; they have recycled nuclear waste for decades without a misstep.
World Resources Institute WRI is a global research organization that spans more than 50 countries, with offices in the United States, China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and more. Our more than 700 experts and staff work closely with leaders to turn big ideas into action to sustain our natural resources—the foundation of economic opportunity and human well-being. Our work focuses on seven critical issues at the intersection of environment and development: climate, energy, food, forests, water, cities and the ocean.
Other group engaged in nuclear research, education, operation, commerce
In addition to non-profits that are privately funded, there are hundreds of organizations, government groups, universities, private sector corporations, international groups and youth organizations working with, teaching and/or doing research in nuclear-related technology and operations. Many groups, such as utilities, support nuclear along with other technologies. Listing all is nearly impossible but we have endeavored to represent a portion of other governmental and industry-related groups to provide a sense of the breadth of groups operating to advance the state of knowledge and keep nuclear energy safe around the world.
Americans for Nuclear Energy
American Nuclear Society
Battelle Memorial Institute
Californians for Green Nuclear Power
Center for Climate and Energy Solutions
Center for Strategic and International Studies
Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness
Citizens’ Climate Lobby
Doctors For Nuclear Energy
Energy Impact Center
Energy Reality Project
Energy Innovation Reform Project
Fund for Innovative Climate and Energy Research
Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP)
Global Nexus Initiative
The Grantham Institute for Climate Change
The Heritage Foundation
National Mining Association
Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee
Nuclear Suppliers Association
Nuclear Energy Caucus
Nuclear Energy Institute
Nuclear Engineering Department Heads Organization
Nuclear Friends Foundation
Nuclear for Climate
Nuclear Waste Strategy Coalition
Partei der Humanisten (Germany)
Partnership for Affordable Clean Energy
Partnership for Global Security
Ren Energi Oplysning (Denmark)
TalkNuclear (Canadian Nuclear Association)
Saving our Planet (France, England, Norway)
Thorium Energy – Silicon Valley
Thorium Energy Alliance
Time to Go Nuclear
Voices for Nuclear (France)
US Chamber of Commerce, Global Energy Institutes
US Nuclear Infrastructure Council
Yes Vermont Yankee
Advanced Reactor Concepts
Arizona Public Service Electric Company
Columbia Basin Consulting Group
Commonwealth Fusion Systems
Edlow International Company
Electric Power Research Institute
Next Era Energy
Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee
Nuclear Industry Council
Ontario Power Generations
Southern Nuclear Operating Company
Tri-Alpha Energy (TAE)
Argonne National Laboratories
Canadian Nuclear Laboratories
Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN)
Idaho National Labs
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
Lawrence Livermore National Laborary (LLNL)
National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Oak Ridge National Laboratories
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory
Sandia National Laboratory
Savannah River National Laboratory
115th U.S. Congress (passed NEICA and NEIMA, supporting nuclear modernization)
U.S. Department of Defense
U.S. Department of Energy
U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
Canadian Nuclear Association
European Atomic Forum
Generation IV International Forum
Global Nexus Initiative
Intercontinental Nuclear Institute
International Atomic Energy Agency
International Nuclear Societies Council (INSC)
Members of the INSC include:
Asociacion Argentina de Tecnologia Nuclear
Associação Brasileira de Energia Nuclear
Atomic Energy Society of Japan
Australian Nuclear Association (ANA)
Canadian Nuclear Society (CNS)
Egyptian Society of Nuclear Science and Applications (ESNSA)
European Nuclear Society (ENS)
Austrian Nuclear Society
Belgian Nuclear Society
Bulgarian Nuclear Society
Croatian Nuclear Society
Czech Nuclear Society
Finnish Nuclear Society
French Nuclear Energy Society
German Nuclear Society
Hungarian Nuclear Society
Israel Nuclear Society
Italian Nuclear Association
Lithuanian Nuclear Energy Association
Netherlands Nuclear Society
The Nuclear Institute
Nuclear Society of Russia
Nuclear Society of Serbia
Nuclear Society of Slovenia
Polish Nuclear Society
Romanian Nuclear Energy Association
Slovak Nuclear Society
Spanish Nuclear Society
Swedish Nuclear Society
Swiss Nuclear Society
Indian Nuclear Society (InNS)
Israel Nuclear Society (INS)
Korean Nuclear Society (KNS)
Latin American Section (LAS)
Nuclear Energy Society Taipei (NEST)
Pakistan Nuclear Society (PNS)
Sociedad Nuclear Mexicana (SNM)
Nuclear Society of Thailand (NST)
(NOTE: THESE LISTS ARE NOT COMPREHENSIVE)